Metro’s 14-m Challenge on Ring Rd

Posted by rajat On July - 4 - 2013ADD COMMENTS

Will Build Link Along Raja Garden Flyover With Little Margin On Either Side

New Delhi:It’s an exercise in precision engineering. Delhi Metro, which will run parallel to Ring Road from Mukundpur to Shiv Vihar, will construct a portion of its viaduct through a passage 12-14m in width. This is when the viaduct itself is 10m wide. “This stretch is near the Raja Garden flyover where the Rajouri Garden station will be integrated with the new station. The stations will be connected through a footbridge,” said a senior Delhi Metro Rail Corporation official.


The challenge is to build the viaduct, which will come from Mayapuri and go towards Rajouri Garden, alongside the flyover. “There’s little leeway since a number of commercial establishments lie next to the flyover, and the distance in-between is only 12-14m. We decided to go ahead as the buildings would have had to be demolished otherwise,” said the official.


To accommodate the buildings, DMRC will build its viaduct, keeping a margin of 1-2m on either side. Interestingly, the buildings, which go up to 40-45 feet, will have the viaduct passing around 9m from the ground, which is the height of the rail level. The stretch where the viaduct goes between the flyover and the buildings will be 120m long. “Around 3m has been spared for entry to the shops, while the parking will be shifted under the flyover during construction. The slip road will be closed during this time,” added the Delhi Metro official.


This is not the only station unique to Delhi Metro. The new corridor, line 7 (Mukundpur-Shiv Vihar), will have several stations that serve as pedestrian connections across Ring Road. Paralleling Ring Road, this corridor will travel through congested areas with high traffic volume. In fact, the stretch between Rajouri Garden to Mukundpur will cross four lines of the existing metro network.


The eight stations that will connect Ring Road and surrounding areas include Mukundpur, which will be built at grade; Azadpur, Shalimar Bagh and Netaji Subhash Place, all of which are underground stations; and Shakarpur, Punjabi Bagh, ESI Hospital and Rajouri Garden.


Three of these stations will be for crossover: Azadpur, Netaji Subhash Place and Rajouri Garden. The stations falling in this stretch will have pedestrian linkages, providing accessibility to not only to the stations but also Ring Road, added Delhi Metro officials. These pedestrian linkages include footoverbridges at Azadpur, Netaji Subhash Place and Rajouri Garden.


Connections through existing subways or footbridges, such as those at ESI, Punjabi Bagh and Shakarpur, will also be provided. Added the Delhi Metro official, “Where the infrastructure exists, we will connect the station with it. Where there isn’t any, we will create new links.”



Source: Times of India

Lack Of Clarity Over Repayment Of Dues Has Centre And DMRC Divided

New Delhi: Amid indications of DMRC likely to take over the operation of Airport Metro Express from next month invoking “large public interest”, there is no clarity on who would repay the debt of at least Rs 2,000 crore in case the present contract gets terminated.


According to senior Union urban development ministry officials, the DMRC has proposed that the debt can be repaid by both Government of India and Delhi government, the promoters of the “hybrid” public-private-partnershi (PPP) project. But the ministry maintains that the Centre should not be made to bear this burden since the contract is between DMRC and Delhi Airport Metro Express Line (DAMPEL). Officials told TOI that the corporation should arrange fund for such takeover of the project.
The logic behind this argument is that the project was bid out based on certain projects and conditions, particularly high daily ridership of 40,000 passengers. However, till now the maximum ridership was hovering around 20,000 to 21,000. It has nearly halved to around 10,000 per day since the line was reopened after six months suspension. This is nowhere close to the projects made in the detailed project report (DPR). “Responsibility of preparing a faulty DPR should be fixed. However, considering the public interest we have supported that DMRC should immediately take over the project after DAMPEL exits,” said a ministry official in condition of anonymity.


Significantly, everyone in the ministry seemed tightlipped over the huge debt issue. Even the UD secretary Sudhir Krishna did not comment on this issue, though he said that the DMRC board has asked the private company to continue operation. “We have said that DMRC would take over operation in case the company stops work. We have nothing more to add,” he said.


Meanwhile, senior officials that since huge debt of the consortium of lenders led by Axis bank is caught in this project ideally they should be allowed either to bring back DAMPEL to operate the line or find a substitution of the present operator, which usually happens in a PPP infrastructure project.


Officials admitted that the project would never be financially viable until the cost of tickets is reworked on this premier line. “Why will people use this line for regular commuting when they have to pay very high price? It has to be somewhere close to the normal Metro tickets on other lines,” one of them said. He added that no matter who replaces as the operator with the present level of ridership the project would never become “viable”.





Project awarded in 2008 to Reliance JV. Scheduled to open airport line in 2010. Project delayed and opens in 2011. Again closes in July 2012 due to problems in structure

DMRC did tunnelling and civil works

DAMEPL installed tracks, electrification, signalling and railway systems, as well as procured and maintained rolling stock

DAMEPL restarts operations on Jan 23, 2013

Check-in: Only at New Delhi railway station at present with Jet Airways and Air India (domestic only)

DAMEPL has been trying to earn revenue through on-site commercial ventures, promotional events (even allowed a shoot during the close-down for repairs), use of real estate


Source: Times Of India

50 Metro Stations at High Risk: UN Study

Posted by rajat On June - 25 - 2013ADD COMMENTS

‘DMRC Ignored Disaster Threats During Planning’

New Delhi: Lessons have not been learnt from past disasters, it seems. Delhi Metro, which ferries over two million passengers a day, is on a highrisk earthquake and flood zone and may lead to a huge loss of life in case of a disaster, says a recently released UN report on disaster risk reduction.


The Global Assessment Report (GAR), released by the United Nations office on disaster risk reduction, UNISDR, has also estimated the loss of revenue as over Rs 4,100 crore if a disaster had struck Delhi Metro in 2012. Despite awareness of earthquake and flood risk, much of the expansion of Delhi Metro has taken place in highly hazard-prone areas, the report adds.


In terms of direct risks, more than 50 stations (phases I & II) are located in areas of high-earthquake hazard, exposing the line to earthquakes of up to a magnitude of 8 on the Richter scale,” says the study, which was released on June 3 for the Asia-Pacific region. One of the stations was also built in a high-flood hazard area. In both cases, hazard information was available on municipal zoning maps, it says.


As a result, the Metro line is exposed to high flood and earthquake risk even for shortreturn periods of one-10 years,” according to the assessment. It cites case studies, saying considerations for site locations were not governed or even directed by reasons of disaster risk — these were a result of other political economy questions. “Although measures may have been taken at the construction phase to address this risk, disaster risk reduction does not seem to play a role in the decisions at the time of planning,” the study says.


The report was based on a comprehensive risk assessment study carried out through Bangalore-based Indian Institute for Human Settlements.


The study warns of mass casualties in case of foreigners, too, who are travelling to India as more than 3,00,000 passengers from over 60 countries of the world are expected to use the Airport line per day once it is running at full capacity. In all, “over two million passengers are travelling per day on the Delhi Metro, a number that is larger than the population of about 100 countries in the world”, it says.


Delhi Metro Rail Corporation claims its structures have been constructed keeping in mind the topology of the area. Besides, “all elevated structures have certification under BIS-1893, IRC, IIT Kanpur-RDSO guidelines, the highest safety codes for any elevated structure. The underground structures follow Japanese guidelines,” says a spokesperson.


The UN study, however, is not convinced. It says the direct risk to Metro stations and lines may have been reduced due to application of risk-sensitive building codes but this is not necessarily the case for new real estate developments surrounding the stations.

Delhi and Gurgaon fall in Zone IV (high earthquake risk zone), 50 stations (phase I and II) fall under high-hazard category.


Special land use changes and building bylaw exceptions made in the case of DMRC which have increased exposure to hazards.



News Source:  Times Of India

Metro To Snake Through 14 Curves

Posted by rajat On June - 17 - 2013ADD COMMENTS

Congested Areas Along Mukundpur-Shiv Vihar Corridor Pose A Challenge

New Delhi: With 14 sharp curves in a span of 13km, the Hazrat Nizamuddin to Shiv Vihar section of the Mukundpur-Shiv Vihar corridor is expected to be unique in Delhi Metro’s network. Curves having less than 300m radius are considered to be ‘sharp curves’ in urban rail construction.


In 2010, Delhi Metro constructed the sharpest broad gauge curve on its elevated section in Gurgaon near IFFCO Chowk with a radius of 282.05 meters between pier numbers 125 to 137 in Phase II. “DMRC will be constructing a record number of sharp curves in phase III. It will be on the standard gauge metro corridor from Hazrat Nizamuddin to Shiv Vihar.” said Anuj Dayal, the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation spokesman.


Such sharp curves would entail precision planning and construction by Delhi Metro. “Cantilever piers and portals or supports would have to be constructed at appropriate places to provide smooth transition for the curves to take care of the shifted alignment due to the curvature,” added the Delhi Metro official.


The reason behind Delhi Metro constructing such sharp curves is the congested nature of the localities the line will pass through on the Mukundpur to Shiv Vihar corridor. “Because of the uneven twists and turns in this 25km elevated corridor, Delhi Metro is being forced to construct 14 curves on this stretch that pass through congested areas like Trilokpuri, Kalyanwas, Vinod Nagar, I P Extension, Anand Vihar, Karkarduma, Welcome, Seelampur, Jaffrabad and Maujpur,” said the Delhi Metro spokesman.


Building sharp curves requires a great deal of engineering skills and several factors have to be kept in mind while designing special segments or spans at the concerned turn or juncture, said DMRC engineers. “DMRC has to form especially dedicated beds in its casting yard for casting of special segments. The segments are then constructed according to the already defined ‘radius of curvature’ and then put on the viaduct,” added Dayal.


The Mukundpur to Shiv Vihar corridor is 59km long and will cover 40 metro stations. It is one of the two new corridors being constructed for Phase III.



Source: Times Of India

Walkway To Link Rly, IGI Metro Stations

Posted by rajat On June - 12 - 2013ADD COMMENTS

Airport Express Making 150m Path For Pedestrian Safety At Ajmeri Gate

New Delhi: Passengers coming by train needn’t worry about running an obstacle course across the crowded New Delhi railway station to reach the Airport Metro station anymore. R-Infra promoted Delhi Airport Metro is finally building a pedestrian pathway at New Delhi railway station.


This 150m long pathway will allow pedestrians to easily access the Airport Metro station, said sources. “At present, it’s difficult for passengers to commute between the New Delhi railway station and the Airport Metro station because of the vehicles and uneven path, especially carrying luggage along,” said an official. To allow easier access, the Delhi Airport Metro Express Pvt Ltd (DAMEPL) is building the pathway with the permission of the Northern Railways, added officials.


The 7.5m wide pathway will be for pedestrians only, allowing easy access to both the railway station and the Metro stations. While the idea is to provide direct connectivity to the Airport Metro station, it will also help those going to the Delhi Metro station.


According to officials, the pedestrian pathway is scheduled to become operational in a month’s time. “There had been a number of complaints about the lack of easy accessibility. The pathway should address that problem,” added the official. The pathway will start from the left extreme corner of the New Delhi railway station — on the Ajmeri Gate side — where the VIP entry is located at present, and connect with the northwest side of the Airport Metro station.


However, for the first few months of operation, commuters will have to find a way around the drop-off points that are located in the entry to the railway station. “At 30m, the drop-off points are located, where private vehicles drop off passengers. This will interrupt the pathway for a few months,” admitted the official.


However, a source said talks are on with the Northern Railways to shift the drop-off points to the other end of the station in a few months time.


The pathway will also have green planters, and “portals” with seating areas, which will be built later.




No direct link between New Delhi railway station and Delhi Airport Metro station
Passengers at the railway station have to navigate through taxi and autorickshaw lanes, dividers etc to reach the Metro station
DAMEPL constructing 7.5m wide airport metro pathway for pedestrians that will cut across dividers and parking areas to ease access
Pathway scheduled to become operational in a month’s time
Pathway will be interrupted by the drop-off point at 30m
This drop-off point for vehicles will however be shifted to another end of station in 3 months The pathway will also have green planters
On the pathway, nonslippery lather finish kota stone will be used
The pathway would also be equipped with signage for areas that can be reached via the Delhi Airport Metro Express
Wheelchair with porter services to ferry senior citizens, disabled and ill people to be made available


Source: Times of India

City Can Ride Green With a Bicycle Kick

Posted by rajat On June - 11 - 2013ADD COMMENTS

New Delhi: In a city jammed with four-wheelers, the bicycle as an alternative mode of transport has predictably found few takers. The reasons are varied–extreme weather conditions, unmanageable traffic, lack of government initiative, even a lack of bicycle stations in different parts of the capital. Yet, a look at how cycling can change the way a city is perceived makes it apparent that it’s a mode of travel that the government needs to promote.

 Cycle Scheme

It’s a desirable and practicable goal that cities like Copenhagen have achieved. From an industrialized city in the 1970s to the “Bike City of the World”, Denmark’s capital has come a long way. Much like India now, Denmark was faced with a rapidly expanding population clamouring for infrastructure. As in Delhi today, there was a conflict between bicycle and car interests. However, the solution was found in city planning that gave space to four-wheelers, bicycles, pedestrians and public transport. Thus grew Denmark’s extended network of cycle lanes along roads, which has been replicated elsewhere in Europe.


With population and traffic becoming unmanageable in Delhi, the time is ripe to promote the bicycle as a mode of transport. It is easy on the environment and also works wonders for people’s health. According to government data, carbon monoxide emission from private cars is as much as 34% while from two-wheelers it is around 61%. Yet, the vehicular population has grown 10% annually, bringing the total to 72 lakh.


It’s not easy to bring about change, though. Sudhir Haryal’s company, Planet Advertising, manages the nine bicycle stands built along the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) corridor. While five stations are available at Moolchand, the other four are situated further down towards National Stadium. With nominal charges–Rs 10 for the first four hours and Rs 5 for every subsequent hour–the bright green bicycle stands not only allow commuters to rent bikes but also park them. But it’s been an uphill battle to get commuters to opt for them. Haryal says only 10-12 people rent bikes at a station in a day. “A number of foreigners opt to take a bicycle. It’s more popular during winter, obviously,” he adds.


BRT is not the only corridor where the government has tried to implement its non-motorized transport plans. At the Vishwavidyalaya Metro station, Jitender Khurana runs a fairly successful bicycle stand. His 25 bikes can’t be found after 9am. “Students are especially keen to take these bicycles around the university,” he says.


That there are takers for bicycles as a mode of travel is obvious from the rising, albeit marginal, group of cycling enthusiasts in Delhi. Cycling clubs abound, with groups of early bikers being seen early mornings in various parts of Delhi on weekends. Ragini Sharma is one such enthusiast. Working with a research think-tank in the ITO area, she used to cycle to work in winter–all the way from Dhaula Kuan. While it took over an hour, Sharma says the benefit, apart from burnt calories, was the sense of relaxation that she got. “However, the traffic was very stressful… people in Delhi have no concept of giving way, even to a bicycle,” rues Sharma.


Like Sharma, many people are keen to cycle but wary of the traffic conditions. The absence of proper cycle tracks along arterial roads is a major hurdle. In 2010, during the run-up to the Commonwealth Games, Chief Minister Sheila Dikshit had promised bicycle tracks along all major roads, including flyovers. The promise is yet to be implemented in entirety. The cycle tracks that were built have been encroached for unauthorized parking. Two-wheelers and autorickshaws avoiding jams, besides hawkers and squatters, also use them. At other places, cycle lanes are used to dump waste and construction material.


Bicycles contribute to about 4% of the city’s total commuting trips, against about 60% in the 1960s. The Delhi Master Plan 2021 recommends cycle tracks for all roads. However, Haryal says, “There are many who want to take up cycling as a zero-pollution and affordable transport, but are not able to do so as there are few cyclist-friendly facilities. The government needs to promote the concept.”

 pedal power

Way back in 1998, experts from IIT-Delhi led by Geetam Tiwari had even made a “bicycle master plan” for Delhi. The suggestions were not implemented. Experts say just creating cycle tracks is not enough. In some countries, governments use tax exemptions to promote cycling. Schemes to make commuters switch to cycling for all trips shorter than 5km need to be implemented. Cycles can be an effective feeder system for the Delhi Metro, BRT and even buses.


Source: Times of India

Tariff Jolt May Hike Metro Fare

Posted by rajat On June - 5 - 2013ADD COMMENTS

Discoms Seek Revision, DMRC Says Commuters To Bear Cost

New Delhi: Commuting by Delhi Metro could get costlier if a proposal to hike the power tariff for Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) is accepted. The proposal, which is still being examined by Delhi Regulatory Commission (DERC), comes after the discoms sought a hike in tariff. Delhi Metro, which made a case to DERC earlier last month, has clearly said in its presentation that any further increase in tariff cannot be absorbed by DMRC without an increase in the fare which, it admits, will burden commuters.




At present, Delhi Metro pays Rs 6.05 per unit, besides “fixed” charges. As part of the “time of day” (TOD) metering, DMRC also pays a higher tariff for using power at certain hours of the day, which are usually the peak hours.


Says Sharat Sharma, director (operations), at Delhi Metro: “The maximum energy usage by Delhi Metro is during the hours defined as peak by the discoms. The TOD tariff has resulted in an additional burden. Since Delhi Metro is a passenger service, we cannot curtail energy usage during peak commuter travelling hours.” According to Sharma, energy consumption in the past two years has been 41.34 per cent but the expenditure on power has gone up by 140 per cent during that time. “A further power tariff hike will have a detrimental impact on our operational costs. Already, power accounts for 40 per cent of our operational costs. If this goes up further, we will have to cut down on other services,” said Sharma.


Last year, DMRC had asked the Centre for a hike in fares, citing increasing operational costs. However, the committee on fare hike is yet to be set up. If a fare hike is not implemented now, Delhi Metro could be forced to look at a subsidy from the government to pay back its loans, say officials.


The loan from JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) is paid from the operational revenue collected by Delhi Metro at present. If this goes down, then subsidies would have to be considered to bail out Delhi Metro,” admits Sharma.


Adding to the DMRC’s woes is the talk of a reliability charge by the discoms. While the hikes proposed range from 1.61-20 per cent, the reliability charge is for supplying uninterrupted power, according to the proposal. This, says Delhi Metro, would be blatantly unfair.


“Reliability is a factor introduced through our systems which have been put in place. The fact is that in the financial year 2012-13, there were numerous instances of tripping, which resulted in a loss of power for 36 hours,” says Sharma. Interestingly, compared to UP and Haryana, Delhi power unit costs the most. Per unit prices in the neighbouring states are Rs 5 and Rs 5.60 per unit, respectively.




Discoms demanding tariff revision for Delhi Metro The hikes range from 1.61-20%
Discoms also want a reliability charge for supplying uninterrupted power
DMRC says hike in power tariff will result in increase in operational costs Energy or power costs already account for 40% of operational costs According to officials, any further increase in tariff cannot be sustained by DMRC without hike in fare structure which will burden commuters Delhi Metro’s increase in power consumption in last two years has been around 41.34%’


Yet expenditure on power has gone up by 140%
The reason is the last two consecutive power tariff hikes as well as the introduction of the ‘time of day’
The latter is tariff based on peak and non-peak hours
Compared to UP and Haryana, the Delhi power unit costs more
On reliability charges, DMRC says power is made stable due to back-up services of Metro
It cites the number of trips by each discom which accounted for loss of power of 36 hours in FY 2012-13


Source:  Times of India

Road May Eat into Farmhouse Land

Posted by rajat On June - 3 - 2013ADD COMMENTS

New Delhi: As many as 200 south Delhi farmhouses may soon have to give up a part of their land for the expansion of proposed eight-lane Mandi Road. The project, connecting south Delhi to Gurgaon and Faridabad, requires acquisition of around 45 hectares of land and farmhouses along the Mandi Road stretch — on Chattarpur, Sultanpur, Gadiapur and Jonapur — are likely to be affected. Union urban minister Kamal Nath gave in-principal approval for the project on Monday and asked PWD and DDA to expedite the process.



Confirming this, PWD minister Rajkumar Chauhan said the acquisition is inevitable and the landowners will be compensated as per the government rate of Rs 75 lakh per acre. Experts however, say this rate is several times less than the market rate. “Mandi Road has to be constructed for which the land acquisition (of the farmhouses) has to take place. The department has already started work like lying of sewer lines. We are only waiting for the final alignment of the project to start the construction,” added Chauhan.


The acquisition process however, is expected to start in a few months after DDA issues the land acquisition notification. At present, the project alignment that received a go-ahead from the lieutenant governor on May 10 has been put up on the UTTIPEC website for suggestions. The final meeting to pass the alignment is scheduled on June 10.


Interestingly, the current alignment has been designed in a way that will cause minimal disturbance to the surrounding villages. “Initial alignment proposed for the road was disturbing some part of Jaunpur village which would have involved removing built up structure like house of villagers. Therefore a new plan was proposed ensuring minimal disturbance to the village,” said an official. The official, however, accepted that acquiring farmhouse land is going to be a big challenge. On Monday Nath had held a review meeting of the project that was attended by PWD secretary Arun Baroka and Chattarpur MLA Balram Tanwar.


The 9.05 kilometre corridor is expected to help commuters from Mehrauli, Greater Kailash, Chhattarpur, Saket etc to avoid jams at NH-8 and NH-2. At present, the road exists as a two-lane road riddled with potholes and is without a central verge. The proposed project will start at Mehrauli-Gurgaon road, go via Gwala Pahari and terminate at Gurgaon-Faridabad road — the shortest connect to Faridabad from south Delhi. The road will start with 45m right of way and widen it to 60m. The width of the carriageway is proposed to be 7.5 metres on each side.


Source: Times of India

Comparative Questions Shot, Aspirants Left With Doubts

New Delhi: Delhi University’s ‘open house’ on Tuesday failed to clear many students’ doubts about implementation of the new four-year undergraduate programme (FYUP). Questions comparing the structure of the new programme with the previous one were not taken up.

Deepak Tyagi, a student of Delhi Public School, decided not to ask a question about the advantages of the fourth year of study compared to the three-year BCom (H) when a similar question was shot down.
My elder brother studied the three-year-programme and spoke very highly of it. While I understand that the new format will give me more options, I wanted to know why the extra year isn’t just a waste of time and wanted a comparative analysis of the two courses,” he said, adding, “I’ll ask the teachers in different colleges when I apply”.

Dean of Students’ Welfare, J M Khurana, answered an array of questions about the specifics of the new programme but refused to entertain any questions concerning the old course structure. “Don’t ask me about what was before. What was here before is no longer here.”

The assembled DU aspirants tried their best to clear doubts. “I have no control over the system, but I want to know as much as I can about it and make the best of it,” said Shivani Grover, an aspirant.

Most questions were about the differences between foundation and applied courses, whether it will be possible to switch to another course after completing the foundation programme, and whether students will be able to choose a minor subject from the undergraduate level for their post-graduation.

While most students seemed confused with the sheer change that the fouryear programme has brought about, some teachers said the process is advancing smoothly. “The admissions are coming along nicely. We are doing our level best to help the students in any way we can, and their queries and the response have been quite good,” said Pratibha Jolly, principal, Miranda House.

Source: Times of India

Master plan: Govt Wants Norms Eased

Posted by rajat On May - 28 - 2013ADD COMMENTS

1,639 Colonies Don’t Meet Regularization Terms

New Delhi: In a bid to deliver on its promises to residents of unauthorized colonies, the Delhi government is seeking relaxation in Master Plan 2021 and building control norms so that regularization becomes possible for the 1,639 colonies that do not meet town planning and fire safety criteria.

The state’s urban development department has sought relaxations in MPD-2021 in an official mail to the union urban development ministry to enable regularization on an “as is where is” basis.

The letter from Delhi urban development secretary RK Srivastava to Sudhir Krishna, his central counterpart, written over a fortnight ago, reveals how the state wants changes in the norms under MPD 2021 to facilitate the making of layout plans by the municipal corporations in colonies which fail to qualify as per current norms.

The state informs that local bodies are of the view there is a marked change in the number of plots submitted by RWAs at the time of application in 2007-08 when compared to the present ground
reality. The boundaries for these colonies have been fixed based on aerial survey images and 50% built-up area in 2007.

There are plots in these colonies of less than 32 sq metres as against the provisions of MPD-2021. Besides, the existing width of roads in many colonies may be less than six metres which is contrary to fire safety norms.

Existing ground realities cannot be ignored. Hence the MPD norms may require relaxation,” the department has written.

The local bodies have reported that it would be difficult to strictly adhere to existing norms of town planning and fire safety in these colonies. In this case, the department feels that the layout plans of these colonies may not be approved.

In view of this, the department has now suggested to the ministry that the “only way forward could be to regularize the colony on as is where is basis by relaxing MPD-2021 and building control norms subject to certification of structural safety by a qualified architect or engineer”.

To justify the relaxations, the department says that the norms of MPD-2021 may be made applicable to unauthorized colonies while undertaking incentivized redevelopment.

Source: Times of India